Key Technologies and Applications of Initial Processing in Macadamia Nut Production Areas


China has introduced macadamia nuts to Guangdong, Yunnan, Guangxi, and Guizhou provinces and regions for cultivation. After more than 40 years of promotion, more than 3 million acres of macadamia nuts have been planted nationwide, with a planting area exceeding the original area and ranking first in the world.
In recent years, the development of macadamia nut industry in Guangdong Province has been very rapid, ranking third in the country in terms of planting area, with a preliminary statistics of over 100000 acres. The main planting areas are located in mountainous and hilly areas such as Yangchun in Yangjiang, Yunfu Yunan, and Maoming Xinyi. This is very different from continuous planting on flat land in foreign countries, and the large-scale equipment developed cannot adapt to the hilly and mountainous areas of Guangdong Province. Currently, macadamia nut harvesting in Guangdong Province Labor costs such as initial processing and transportation costs account for over 30-40% of the industrial chain. The peeling and shelling process in the production area is heavily manual, and the equipment is rudimentary, the methods are primitive, and the process is outdated. The loss rate in the peeling and shelling process is over 30%. Currently, the processing rate in the production area of Australian nuts in Guangdong Province is less than 10%, leading to untimely peeling and the production of a large number of moldy fruits, and even posing serious risks to product quality and safety.
Implementing the initial processing of macadamia nut production areas can effectively eliminate the inferior parts, ensure the quality of fresh fruits, and prevent mold and decay, facilitating storage and transportation. This technology can significantly improve the initial processing capacity of macadamia nut production areas, reduce postpartum losses of macadamia nuts, and improve product quality.
At present, the primary processing technology of post harvest macadamia nuts in China is backward, and the peeling and shelling are still in the manual stage. The labor intensity is high, the production efficiency is low, and the delayed peeling and shelling cause the nuts rich in unsaturated fat acids to easily deteriorate, and the product quality is seriously affected; With the continuous production of existing young orchards and the entry of high yield orchards, the production of macadamia nuts will significantly increase. The demand for small initial processing equipment is increasing, and the constraints on the development of the nut industry are becoming increasingly prominent. After the demonstration and promotion of this technology in local leading enterprises in Guangdong Province, the initial processing capacity of Australian nut production areas has significantly increased by more than 30%; On the other hand, macadamia nuts are processed fresh, greatly reducing the loss of active ingredients and effectively improving the quality of the fruit; The small equipment developed to adapt to mountainous and hilly areas has significantly reduced labor costs for small and medium-sized enterprises by over 40%. Macadamia nuts have been peeled and dried at low temperatures, and logistics costs have also been significantly reduced.
Technical points:

1. The light and simple peeling and shell breaking equipment developed is very suitable for mountainous and hilly areas, with low power requirements (220V voltage and small generator can be used to drive). It can be directly placed in the field for initial processing of macadamia nuts in the production area, suitable for planting cooperatives and small and medium-sized enterprises;
2 The small and simple peeling and breaking machine for macadamia nuts developed, with a peeling rate of ≥ 97.73%; Shell breaking rate ≥ 95.00%; Whole kernel rate ≥ 90.00%; The production efficiency rate is 200 kg/h, and the initial processing capacity of the origin is increased by at least 30% or more;
3 The low temperature drying process developed by us keeps macadamia nuts at a low temperature throughout the processing process, which preserves the nutrition of nuts, especially the unsaturated fat acid of nuts, and avoids oxidative deterioration caused by high temperature treatment. At the same time, the processing process is easy to control, and the cost is low, which is suitable for large-scale promotion and application.
Impact on the ecological environment:
By promoting this technology, the quality of fresh macadamia nuts has been effectively improved, providing safety assurance for subsequent processing, and preventing the occurrence of moldy fruits due to untimely peeling. A large amount of green peel can be centrally treated after peeling, effectively reducing postpartum losses and pollution to the ecological environment of macadamia nuts, and providing a guarantee for promoting the healthy and rapid development of the macadamia nut industry in Guangdong Province.